A Kernel of Durum Wheat
– Sometimes called the wheat berry, the kernel is the seed from which the durum wheat plant grows. Each tiny seed contains three distinct parts that are separated during the milling process to produce semolina flour.
– About 83 percent of the kernel weight and the source of semolina. The endosperm contains the greatest share of protein, carbohydrates and iron, as well as the major B–vitamins, such as riboflavin, niacin and thiamine. It is also a source of soluble fibre.
– About 14 percent of the kernel weight. Bran is included in the whole wheat flour. The bran contains a small amount of protein, large quantities of the three major B–vitamins, trace minerals, and dietary fibre – primarily insoluble.
– The germ is the embryo or sprouting section of the seed, often separated from flour in milling because the fat content (10 percent) limits the shelf–life of flour. The germ contains minimal quantities of high quality protein and a greater share of B–complex vitamins and trace minerals.